CityGML 3.0

CityGML is an international standard issued by the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) on the modeling, storage, and exchange of semantic 3D city models. Version 2.0.0 of the standard was adopted by the OGC in March 2012. The Chair of Geoinformatics is actively involved in the development of the upcoming version 3.0.0 and coordinates the ongoing creation of the specification documents and the data models.

Project description

In order to increase the usability of CityGML for more user groups and areas of application, the OGC CityGML Standards Working Group (SWG) and the Special Interest Group 3D (SIG 3D) of the initiative Geodata Infrastructure Germany (GDI-DE) work since 2014 on the further development of CityGML.

This development will result in the next major version CityGML 3.0 which is to be finalised by the end of 2020. The new version will bring a number of improvements, extensions, and new functionalities.

  • Use of a model-driven approach: The data model is now fully based on the ISO 191xx standards. The software tool Enterprise Architect is used for creating the data model and the GML encoding will be fully automatically derived from the data model using the software tool ShapeChange.
  • Revised LOD concept: LOD4 has been removed, the interior of objects can be expressed in different LODs 0-3 now. It is e.g. possible to model the outside shell of a building in LOD1 while representing the interior structure in LOD2 or 3.
  • New and revised modules: CitygML 3.0 includes several new and revised modules which allow for better use of 3D city models in different areas of application such as urban planning, energy simulations, and traffic analyses, reduce redundancy by integrating and providing concepts used in several modules centrally via inheritance, simplify geometry handling, and improve the representation of physical and logical objects.
    • New Core model: All spatial representations base on the two new pivotal concepts Space and SpaceBoundary. The geometry can now also be given by point clouds. The new core model implements the new LOD concept.
    • New Construction module: Groups all classes which are similar over different types of constructions like buildings, tunnels, and bridges. Allows for representing constructions not being covered by any of the other modules.
    • New Versioning module: Allows to explicitly represent and exchange multiple versions of city objects (e.g. history or alternative designs) within one city model dataset. All objects can have bitemporal lifespan data.
    • New Dynamizer module: Defines concepts to represent and exchange time-varying data for city object properties (e.g. solar irradiation over the day) as well as to integrate sensors with 3D city models. Data sources can be timeseries data represented inline, in external files, or from sensor web services (OGC Sensor Web Enablement or Internet of Things, IoT, in general).
    • Revised Transportation module: Transportation objects like Roads, Tracks, or Railways can now be subdivided into sections and have an area as well as a center line representation for each LOD.
    • Revised Building module: Allows now for representing storeys and building units.
  • Improved interoperability with other standards: CityGML 3.0 allows for better interoperability with other relevant standards like IndoorGML, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), as well as with Semantic Web Technologies like Resource Description Framework (RDF) and with the EU Directive INSPIRE (Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe).
  • Backwards compatibility: All modifications to the new CityGML 3.0 model are carried out in a way to ensure backwards compatibility with CityGML 1.0 and 2.0

The CityGML 3.0 standard will consist of at least two parts:

  • the CityGML 3.0 Conceptual Model specification and
  • the CityGML 3.0 GML Encoding specification. Further encoding specifications (e.g. relational database schema, JSON-based representation) may follow in the future.

Please note that all changes are subject to the final voting of the OGC CityGML SWG and the OGC Technical Committee.

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model of CityGML 3.0 was defined as UML model. The UML model was created using the software Enterprise Architect. The current draft of the UML model can be downloaded from this github repository: https://github.com/opengeospatial/CityGML-3.0CM (Folder "Conceptual Model")

Please note: CityGML 3.0 is currently under review within the OGC. Thus, the UML model may still undergo slight changes until the finalisation of the specification.

GML Encoding

GML application schemata have been derived from the UML model using the software ShapeChange. The current draft of the GML application schemata can be downloaded from this github repository: https://github.com/opengeospatial/CityGML-3.0Encodings (Folder "CityGML")

 

Test data sets

Test data sets that are compliant to the current CityGML 3.0 draft are available here:

 

Software support

The following software tools already support CityGML 3.0:

Duration

2013-2020

Contact person

Project leader

News

To test automated driving functions, highly-detailed reference maps are created and described in the road networks standard OpenDRIVE. As OpenDRIVE was developed for the very specific field of vehicle... [more]


Zhihang Yao, research associate at the Chair of Geoinformatics until 2018, successfully defended his doctoral thesis on "Domain Extendable 3D City Models – Management, Visualization, and Interaction" on... [more]


The Chair of Geoinformatics will be participating in the upcoming event OGC CityGML Hackathon in London on 11-12 June, 2019. The Hackathon will build upon the outcomes of the OGC's CityGML Standard Working Group... [more]


The Chair of Geoinformatics had a good run at the 12th International Conference 3D GeoInfo 2017 held at the University of Melbourne: The paper on „Estimating Building Age with 3D GIS“ jointly written by Filip... [more]


Albert Godfrind and Hans Viehmann from the company ORACLE visited the Chair of Geoinformatics for a workshop with the developer team of the Open Source 3D geodatabase 3DCityDB today. Albert Godfrind is one of... [more]


Tatjana Kutzner, research associate at the Chair of Geoinformatics, successfully defended her doctoral thesis on "Geospatial Data Modelling and Model-driven Transformation of Geospatial Data based on UML... [more]


Prof. Kolbe gave the opening keynote talk at the 11th International Conference 3D GeoInfo 2016. The presentation has the title „Making 3D City Models Dynamic“; the slides can be downloaded as a PDF file (21 MB)... [more]


Publications

2020

  • Gilbert, Thomas; Rönsdorf, Carsten; Plume, Jim; Simmons, Scott; Nisbet, Nick; Gruler, Hans-Christoph; Kolbe, Thomas H.; van Berlo, Léon; Mercer, Aidan: Built environment data standards and their integration: an analysis of IFC, CityGML and LandInfra. , Ed.: Integrated Digital Built Environment (IDBE) Joint Working Group of OGC and bSI: Open Geospatial Consortium; buildingSMART International, 2020, more… BibTeX
  • Ishimaru, Nobuhiro; Kurokawa, Chikako; Tanaka, Yuichi; Oishi, Tomohisa; Akahoshi, Kentaro; Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: CityGML Urban Planning ADE for i-Urban Revitalization. Open Geospatial Consortium, 2020, more… BibTeX
  • Kutzner, Tatjana; Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Kolbe, Thomas H.: CityGML 3.0: New Functions Open Up New Applications. PFG – Journal of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science, 2020, 19 more… BibTeX
  • Nguyen, Son H.; Kolbe, Thomas H.: A Multi-perspective Interpretation of Spatio-semantic Changes in large CityGML Datasets using a Graph Database. Proceedings of the 15th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2020 (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2020 more… BibTeX
  • Schwab, Benedikt; Beil, Christof; Kolbe Thomas H.: Spatio-Semantic Road Space Modeling for Vehicle–Pedestrian Simulation to Test Automated Driving Systems. Sustainability 12 (9), 2020, 3799 more… BibTeX

2019

  • Bolduan, Tobias: A new approach for integrating BIM and GIS based on Model View Definition and Profiling Geospatial Application Schemas. Master thesis, 2019 more… BibTeX
  • Gonzalez Balcarce, Fernando Jose: Integration of the sewer network standard ISYBau with the CityGML Utility Network ADE for improved representation of sewer networks. Master thesis, 2019 more… BibTeX
  • Hotschek, Alexander: Projektübergreifende Analyse des Infrastrukturbestands am Beispiel der Bahnhöfe der DB Station & Service AG. Master thesis, 2019 more… BibTeX
  • Härpfer, Daniel: Analysis of the CityGML 3.0 Space Concept based on the Use Cases BIM-GIS lntegration and Street Space Modelling. Master thesis, 2019 more… BibTeX
  • Schwab, Benedikt; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Requirement Analysis of 3D Road Space Models for Automated Driving. ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences IV-4/W8, 2019, 99-106 more… BibTeX

2018

  • Beil, Christof; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Detaillierte Repräsentation des Straßenraums in 3D Stadtmodellen. PFGK18 - Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformatik - Kartographie, 37. Jahrestagung in München 2018 (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V. 27), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2018, 717-728 more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Matheus, Andreas; Nguyen, Son H.; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Securing Spatial Data Infrastructures in the Context of Smart Cities. 2018 International Conference on CYBERWORLDS (CW 2018), 2018, 403-408 more… BibTeX
  • Coduro, Theresa: Straßenraummodellierung mittels Mobile Mapping in OpenDRIVE und CityGML sowie Entwicklung geeigneter Visualisierungsmethoden. Master thesis, 2018 more… BibTeX
  • Kutzner, Tatjana; Hijazi, Ihab; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Semantic Modelling of 3D Multi-utility Networks for Urban Analyses and Simulations – The CityGML Utility Network ADE. International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling (IJ3DIM) 7 (2), 2018, 1-34 more… BibTeX
  • Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: CityGML 3.0: Sneak Preview. PFGK18 - Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformatik - Kartographie, 37. Jahrestagung in München 2018 (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V.), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2018, 835-839 more… BibTeX
  • Nguyen, Son H.; Yao, Zhihang; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Spatio-Semantic Comparison of Large 3D City Models in CityGML Using a Graph Database. gis.Science (3/2018), 2018, 85-100 more… BibTeX
  • Ruhdorfer, Roland: Kopplung von Verkehrssimulation und semantischen 3D-Stadtmodellen in CityGML. PFGK18 - Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformatik - Kartographie, 37. Jahrestagung in München 2018 (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V. 27), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2018, 802-805 more… BibTeX
  • Schönhut, Sabine: An Underground Environment Data Model for BIM and GIS Integration. Master thesis, 2018 more… BibTeX
  • Willenborg, Bruno; Pültz, Martin; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Integration of Semantic 3D City Models and 3D Mesh Models for Accuracy Improvements of Solar Potential Analyses. Proceedings of the 13th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2018 (ISPRS Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2018, 223-230 more… BibTeX
  • Yao, Zhihang; Kolbe, Thomas H.: A new Approach to Model Transformation using Graph Transformation System. PFGK18 - Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung - Geoinformatik - Kartographie, 37. Jahrestagung in München 2018 (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V. 27), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2018, 831-834 more… BibTeX
  • Yao, Zhihang; Nagel, Claus; Kunde, Felix; Hudra, György; Willkomm, Philipp; Donaubauer, Andreas; Adolphi, Thomas; Kolbe, Thomas H.: 3DCityDB - a 3D geodatabase solution for the management, analysis, and visualization of semantic 3D city models based on CityGML. Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards 3 (5), 2018, 1-26 more… BibTeX

2017

  • Moshrefzadeh, Mandana; Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Hijazi, Ihab; Donaubauer, Andreas; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Integrating and Managing the Information for Smart Sustainable Districts - The Smart District Data Infrastructure (SDDI). In: Kolbe, Thomas H.; Bill, Ralf; Donaubauer, Andreas (Ed.): Geoinformationssysteme 2017 – Beiträge zur 4. Münchner GI-Runde. . Wichmann Verlag , 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Baghdoust, Amir: Visualizing dynamic spatial height information in a dam monitoring context. Master thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Beil, Christof: Detaillierte Repräsentation des Straßenraums in 3D-Stadtmodellen. Master thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Beil, Christof; Kolbe, Thomas H.: CityGML and the streets of New York - A proposal for detailed street space modelling. Proceedings of the 12th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2017 (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2017, 9-16 more… BibTeX
  • Biljecki, Filip; Sindram, Maximilian: Estimating Building Age with 3D GIS. Proceedings of the 12th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2017 (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2017, 17-24 more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Future City Pilot 1 Engineering Report – Public Engineering Report. Open Geospatial Consortium, Open Geospatial Consortium, 2017, more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Willenborg, Bruno; Sindram, Maximilian; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Solar Potential Analysis and Integration of the Time-dependent Simulation Results for Semantic 3D City Models Using Dynamizers. Proceedings of the 12th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2017 (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2017, 25-32 more… BibTeX
  • Ebert, Vanessa: CityGML and Urban Metabolism - Initial Investigations for Spatial Modeling of Stocks and Flows. Master thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Egger, Franziska: 3D-Stadtmodelle nach CityGML-Standard als Planungsinstrument für BIM-Infrastrukturprojekte am Beispiel der U4-Netzerweiterung auf die Horner Geest in Hamburg. Studien thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Hijazi, Ihab; Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Use Cases and their Requirements on the Semantic Modeling of 3D Supply and Disposal Networks. Kulturelles Erbe erfassen und bewahren - Von der Dokumentation zum virtuellen Rundgang, 37. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V.), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2017, 288-301 more… BibTeX
  • Nguyen, Son H.: Spatio-semantic Comparison of 3D City Models in CityGML using a Graph Database. Master thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Nguyen, Son H.; Yao, Zhihang; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Spatio-Semantic Comparison of Large 3D City Models in CityGML Using a Graph Database. Proceedings of the 12th International 3D GeoInfo Conference 2017 (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2017, 99-106 more… BibTeX
  • Ruhdorfer, Roland: Kopplung von Verkehrssimulation und semantischen 3D-Stadtmodellen in CityGML. Master thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Schönhut, Sabine: Simulation von Auswirkungen alpiner Naturgefahren auf Versorgungsinfrastrukturen am Beispiel Hornbergl, Österreich. Studien thesis, 2017 more… BibTeX
  • Vilgertshofer, Simon; Amann, Julian; Willenborg, Bruno; Borrmann, André; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Linking BIM and GIS Models in Infrastructure by Example of IFC and CityGML. In: Computing in Civil Engineering 2017. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Library, 2017, 133-140 more… BibTeX
  • Willenborg, Bruno; Sindram, Maximilian; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Applications of 3D City Models for a better understanding of the Built Environment. In: Behnisch, Martin; Meinel, Gotthard (Ed.): Trends in Spatial Analysis and Modelling. Springer International Publishing, 2017, 167-191 more… BibTeX

2016

  • Aringer, Klement; Donaubauer, Andreas; Roschlaub, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Modellbasierte Transformation von 3D-Gebäudemodellen nach INSPIRE. Zeitschrift für Geodäsie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement (3), 2016 more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Integrating Dynamic Data and Sensors with Semantic 3D City Models in the context of Smart Cities. Proceedings of the 11th International 3D Geoinfo Conference (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2016 more… BibTeX
  • Donaubauer, Andreas; Esch, Roman; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Prozedurale Verfahren zur Generierung von 3D-Infrastrukturobjekten. In: Kolbe, Thomas H.; Bill, Ralf; Donaubauer, Andreas (Ed.): Geoinformationssysteme 2016. Wichmann, 2016 more… BibTeX
  • Kausika, Bhavya; Moshrefzadeh, Mandana; Kolbe, Thomas H.; van Sark, Wilfried: 3D Solar Potential Modelling and Analysis: A case study for the city of Utrecht. 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, EUPVSEC 2016, 2016 more… BibTeX
  • Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Extending Semantic 3D City Models by Supply and Disposal Networks for Analysing the Urban Supply Situation. Lösungen für eine Welt im Wandel, Dreiländertagung der SGPF, DGPF und OVG, 36. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V.), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2016, 382-394 more… BibTeX
  • Moshrefzadeh, Mandana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Smart Data Infrastructure for Smart and Sustainable Cities. 13th International Conference on Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning , 2016DDSS 2016 more… BibTeX
  • Willenborg, Bruno; Sindram, Maximilian; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Semantic 3D City Models Serving as Information Hub for 3D Field Based Simulations. Lösungen für eine Welt im Wandel, 3-Ländertagung der SGPF, DGPF und OVG in Bern, 2016Dreiländertagung der DGPF, der OVG und der SGPF more… BibTeX
  • Yao, Zhihang; Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Browser-basierte Visualisierung großer 3D-Stadtmodelle durch Erweiterung des Cesium Web Globe. Geoinformationssysteme 2016 - Beiträge zur 3. Münchner GI-Runde, Wichmann Verlag, 2016, 77-89 more… BibTeX

2015

  • Auer, Stefan; Donaubauer, Andreas: Buildings in High Resolution SAR Images - Identification based on CityGML Data. ISPRS Annals, 2015Joint ISPRS conference PIA15 + HRIGI15 more… BibTeX
  • Burger, Barbara: Erzeugung eines semantischen 3D-Stadtmodells der Stadt New York auf der Basis von Open Data - DGM, Straßen und Zonierung. Master thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Cantzler, Berit: Erzeugung eines semantischen 3D-Stadtmodells der Stadt New York auf der Basis von Open Data - DGM, Gebäude, Flurstücke, Gewässer, Parks und Bäume. Master thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Smyth, Carl Stephen; Gesquière, Gilles; Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Managing versions and history within semantic 3D city models for the next generation of CityGML. Selected papers from the 3D GeoInfo 2015 Conference (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography), Springer, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Chaturvedi, Kanishk; Yao, Zhihang; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Web-based Exploration of and Interaction with Large and Deeply Structured Semantic 3D City Models using HTML5 and WebGL. Bridging Scales - Skalenübergreifende Nah- und Fernerkundungsmethoden, 35. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Daum, Simon; Borrmann, André; Kolbe, Thomas H.: A Spatio-semantic Query Language for the Integrated Analysis of City Models and Building Information Models. Selected papers from the 3D GeoInfo 2015 Conference (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography), Springer, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Elfouly, Mostafa; Kolbe, T.H.: The CityGML Energy ADE - An International Standardization Effort for the Extension of 3D City Models to Support Energetic Building Analysis. Innovations for Energy Systems, Mobility, Buildings and Materials, printy - Digitaldruck & Kopierservice, 20155th Energy Colloquium of the Munich School of Engineering more… BibTeX
  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Burger, Barbara; Cantzler, Berit: CityGML goes to Broadway. Photogrammetric Week '15, Wichmann, 2015, 343-356 more… BibTeX
  • Moshrefzadeh, Mandana; Donaubauer, Andreas, Kolbe, Thomas H.: A CityGML-based Façade Information Model for Computer Aided Facility Management. Bridging Scales - Skalenübergreifende Nah- und Fernerkundungsmethoden, 35. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V., 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Mouratidis, George: Development of a framework for the interoperability of CityGML data and the ArcGIS Online platform. Studien thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Willenborg, Bruno: Simulation of Explosions in Urban Space and Result Analysis Based on CityGML City Models and a Cloud Based 3D Web Client. Master thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Zahn, Wolfgang: Sonneneinstrahlungsanalyse auf und Informationsanreicherung von großen 3D-Stadtmodellen im CityGML-Schema. Master thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX
  • Zirak, Maryam: A Model-driven Approach for Linking Building Thermal Energy Assessment Standards and the CityGML Energy Application Domain Extension (ADE) using UML. Master thesis, 2015 more… BibTeX

2014

  • Bartels, Marie; Becker, Thomas; Hahne, Michael; Hempel, Leon; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Lieb, Renate: Simulation von Kaskadeneffekten beim Ausfall von Infrastrukturen. zfv - Zeitschrift für Geodäsie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement (4), 2014, 217-223 more… BibTeX
  • Casper, Egbert; Häfele, Karl-Heinz; Kaden, Robert: OGC standard CityGML opens up new applications in energy simulation. Journal of the National Institute of Building Sciences 2 (6), 2014, 30-32 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Simulation-Based Total Energy Demand Estimation of Buildings using Semantic 3D City Models. International Journal of 3-D Information Modeling 3 (2), 2014, 35-53 more… BibTeX
  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Kutzner, Tatjana; Gröger, Gerhard; Casper, Egbert: CityGML - Der OGC-Standard CityGML geht in die nächste Runde. gis@work (1), 2014, 42-43 more… BibTeX
  • Offer, Julia; Kaden, Robert; Kastner, Oliver; Zimmermann, Günter; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Entwicklung eines GIS-Werkzeugs zur Untersuchung geothermischer Energieproduktionspotenziale. Angewandte Geoinformatik 2014, Wichmann Verlag, 2014Tagungsband zur Konferenz AGIT 2014, 127-136 more… BibTeX
  • Ortiz-Yepes, Daniel: Resource Description for and Querying of Geodata Models. IDP-Arbeit, 2014 more… BibTeX
  • Wagner, Detlev; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Coors, Volker: Spezifikation von Prüfplänen und Prüfergebnissen zur Validierung von 3D-Stadtmodellen. Geoinformationen öffnen das Tor zur Welt, 34. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation e.V.), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation e.V., 2014 more… BibTeX
  • Yao, Zhihang; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Cloud-basierter Webclient für kollaboratives Arbeiten auf semantischen 3D-Stadtmodellen. Geoinformationen öffnen das Tor zur Welt, 34. Wissenschaftlich-Technische Jahrestagung der DGPF (Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation e.V.), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation e.V., 2014 more… BibTeX

2013

  • Becker, Thomas; Nagel, Claus; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Semantic 3D modeling of multi-utility networks in cities for analysis and 3D visualization. In: Pouliot, Jacynthe; Daniel, Sylvie; Hubert, Frédéric; Zamyadi, Alborz (Ed.): Progress and New Trends in 3D Geoinformation Sciences. Springer, 2013, 41-62 more… BibTeX
  • Borrmann, André; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Donaubauer, Andreas; Steuer, Horst; Jubierre, Javier R.: Transferring multi-scale approaches from 3D city modeling to IFC-based tunnel modeling. Proceedings of the 8th 3D GeoInfo Conference, 2013 more… BibTeX
  • Donaubauer, Andreas: International SIG 3D and OGC Workshop on Requirements for CityGML 3.0, 20.-21. Juni 2013, Technische Universität München. PFG - Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation (6), 2013, 620-622 more… BibTeX
  • Gröger, Gerhard; Kutzner, Tatjana; Kolbe, Thomas H.: A CityGML-based encoding for the INSPIRE Data Specification on Buildings. INSPIRE Conference 2013, 2013 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: City-Wide Total Energy Demand Estimation of Buildings using Semantic 3D City Models and Statistical Data. Proc. of the 8th International 3D GeoInfo Conference, 2013 more… BibTeX
  • Kunde, F.; Nagel, Claus; Herrerruela, Javier; Ross, L.; Kolbe, Thomas H.: 3D-Stadtmodelle in PostGIS mit der 3D City Database. Tagungsband der FOSSGIS-Konferenz, 2013 more… BibTeX
  • Löwner, Marc-O.; Casper, Egbert; Becker, Thomas; Benner, Joachim; Gröger, Gerhard; Gruber, Ulrich; Häfele, Karl-Heinz; Kaden, Robert; Schlüter, Sandra: CityGML 2.0 – Ein internationaler Standard für 3D-Stadtmodelle Teil 2: CityGML in der Praxis. zfv – Zeitschrift für Geodäsie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement (02/2013), 2013, 131-143 more… BibTeX

2012

  • Gröger, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Nagel, Claus; Häfele, Karl-Heinz: OGC City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard – OGC Document No. 12-019. Open Geospatial Consortium (2.0.0. edn.), 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Herreruela, Javier; Nagel, Claus; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Value-added Services for 3D City Models using Cloud Computing. Geoinformatik 2012 "Mobilität und Umwelt", Konferenzband zur Tagung Geoinformatik 2012 vom 28.-30.3.2012 in Braunschweig (Berichte aus der Geoinformatik), Shaker, 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Augmenting 3D City Model Components by Geodata Joins to Facilitate ad-hoc Geometric-topologically Sound Integration. Proceedings of the ISPRS Congress 2012 in Melbourne (ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Krüger, Andreas; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Energy Atlas Berlin. 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; König, Gerhard; Malchow, Carsten; Kolbe, Thomas H.: E-learning Applications for Urban Modelling and OGC Standards Using HTML5 Capabilities. Proceedings of the ISPRS Congress 2012 in Melbourne (ISPRS International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Krüger, Andreas; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3D City Models: The Energy Atlas of Berlin. Proceedings of the ISPRS Congress 2012 in Melbourne (ISPRS International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Scheidgen, Markus; Zubow, Anatolij; Fischer, Joachim; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Automated and Transparent Model Fragmentation for Persisting Large Models. Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference MODELS 2012 in Innsbruck, Austria (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), Springer, 2012 more… BibTeX
  • Semm, Stefan; Becker, Thomas; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Simultaneous Visualization of Different Utility Networks for Disaster Management. Proceedings of the ISPRS Congress 2012 in Melbourne (ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences), ISPRS, 2012 more… BibTeX

2011

  • Becker, Thomas; Nagel, Claus; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Integrated 3D Modeling of Multi-utility Networks and Their Interdependencies for Critical Infrastructure Analysis. In: Advances in 3D Geo-Information Sciences. Springer, 2011, 1--20 more… BibTeX
  • Kaden, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Modellierung einer Geodatenschnittstelle zur semantisch basierten Geodatenintegration von CityGML-Modellen. Tagungsband zur 31. wissenschaftlich-technischen Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V. in Mainz, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation e.V. (DGPF), 2011, 187-200 more… BibTeX

2010

  • Carrión, Daniel; Lorenz, Alexandra; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Estimation of the energetic rehabilitation state of buildings for the city of Berlin using a 3D city model represented in CityGML. ISPRS Conference: International Conference on 3D Geoinformation. XXXVIII-4, ISPRS, 2010 more… BibTeX
  • König, Gerhard; Kaden, Robert; Kolbe, Thomas H.: E-Learning Everywhere with Podcasts - The CityGML Training Course for Mobile Devices. Proceedings of the ISPRS Commission VI Mid-Term Symposium, Enschede, 2010. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS), 2010, 123-129 more… BibTeX

2009

  • Kolbe, Thomas H.: Representing and Exchanging 3D City Models with CityGML – 2. In: Lee, Jiyeong; Zlatanova, Sisi (Ed.): 3D Geo-Information Sciences. Springer, 2009, 15--31 more… BibTeX
  • Stadler, Alexandra; Nagel, Claus; König, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.: Making interoperability persistent : A 3D geo database based on CityGML – 11. In: Lee, Jiyeong; Zlatanova, Sisi (Ed.): 3D Geo-Information Sciences. Springer, 2009, 175-192 more… BibTeX

2008

  • Gröger, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Czerwinski, Angela; Nagel, Claus: Gröger, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Czerwinski, Angela; Nagel, Claus (Ed.): OpenGIS City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) Encoding Standard, Version 1.0.0 – OGC Document No. 08-007r1. Open Geospatial Consortium (1.0.0. edn.), 2008 more… BibTeX
  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz: CityGML – 3D City Models and their Potential for Emergency Response. In: Zlatanova, Sisi; Li, Jonathan (Ed.): Geospatial Information Technology for Emergency Response. Taylor & Francis, 2008, 257-274 more… BibTeX

2006

  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Bacharach, Sam: CityGML: An Open Standard for 3D City Models. Directions Magazine, 2006 more… BibTeX

2005

  • Gröger, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Schmittwilken, Jörg; Stroh, Viktor; Plümer, Lutz: Integrating Versions, History, and Levels-of-Detail within a 3D Geodatabase. International Workshop on Next Generation 3D City Models (EuroSDR Publications 49), European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR), 2005, 35-40 more… BibTeX
  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz: CityGML – Interoperable Access to 3D City Models. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geo-information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM) on 21.-23. March 2005 in Delft, Springer, 2005 more… BibTeX

2004

  • Gröger, Gerhard; Kolbe, Thomas H.; Plümer, Lutz: Mehrskalige, multifunktionale 3D-Stadt-und Regionalmodelle. Photogrammetrie Fernerkundung Geoinformation (PFG) (2), 2004, 121--132 more… BibTeX
  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Gröger, Gerhard: Unified Representation of 3D City Models. Geoinformation Science Journal 4 (1), 2004 more… BibTeX

2003

  • Kolbe, Thomas H.; Gröger, Gerhard: Towards unified 3D city models. Proceedings of the Joint ISPRS Commission IV Workshop on Challenges in Geospatial Analysis, Integration and Visualization II in Stuttgart 2003, ISPRS, 2003 more… BibTeX